Vinatam’s Market Overview Presschemistry (Press Room Chemical, Printing Chemicals) 2012: Feuchtmittelzusätze, mainly Forgra approved fountain additives for Dampening Solutions, ABC Chemical Company, All Star Fount FA, All Star Ultra FA, News Fount, ABC / Allied Pressroom Products (China) Ltd., All Star Fount FA, All Star Ultra FA, Titan Fount NWS, Allied PressroomProducts, All Star Fount FA, All Star Ultra FA, Titan Fount NWS, ACTEGA Kelstar, Inc., Starfount SF 200+, Starfount HT 400, Agfa Graphics, Prima FS 303 SF, Prima FS 404 AS, Prima FS 404 ASH 18-28dH, Prima FS 648, Prima FS 808 AF, Anturafount AFS 1 8 – 18dH, Anturafount AFS H1 18 – 28dH, Anchor (FUJIFILM), Emerald 3100, Emmeral Premium 3108, Emerald Premium 3106, Emerald Premium 3130, Emerald Premium 3130 Soft, Emerald Premium 3530, Emerald Premium 3545, Emerald Premium 3555 EcoDry, AtéCé Graphic Products, TenCaCid Premium, Blue Print Products NV, BlueFount SI 252, BlueFount SC 210, Blue Fount SI 250, Blue Fount SI 250 AQP, Baco Chemical Services Ltd., Baco Fount XTP, Beca Grafic S.A., IPA free fount, Waterfast, BM Management, 2 in 1 Fountain solution, All in One Fountain Solution, SOLO, Felix Böttcher / Bottcher / Boettcher, Böttcher Bottcher Fount S-3004, Böttcher Botcher Fount S-3006, Böttcher Bottcher Fount S-3010, Böttcher Fount S 3010+MA, Oasis 17, BöttcherFount S-3020, Calbe Chemie GmbH, Fountain Sheet Standard, CHE. T Ltd., Chembyo Fountain Solution SF, Colorgraf, Synthesis 2000, CSFI, Hydroecol, Day International (Flint Group), Supreme, Fount2000, Deltagraf, Aqua Delta Additiv, DC DruckChemie, Fountgreen SF / Alcogreen SF, Alkoless SF 2.59, Alkoless SF 2.60, Wassertop DH / Plus KI, Wassertop 603T, Wassertop SF 3.0, DS Druckerei-Service / DSC DS Chemport (FUJIFILM), Acedin D, Alcofount B, Stabilat D, D2010, Acedin D 1991, Acedin D 1989, Acedin Plano 4104 Ecodry, Acedin Plano 4105, Acedin Plano 4107, Acedin Plano 4107 L, Acedin Plano 4115, Acedin Plano 4112, Epple Druckfarben, Waterfit 537, Waterfit 1075, Flint Group Germany, Hydrofast ARS 318, Hydrofast ARS 324, Hydrofast GS 312 CtP, Hydrofast GS 342 0-10dH, Hydrofast AFS 336, Hydrofast AFS 341, Hydrofast 4000 VD 5947 ci, Hydrofast ARH 317 10-20dH, Hydrofast ARH 330 10- 20dH, Hydrofast GH 313 CtP 10 – 20dH, Hydrofast GH 328, Hydrofast GH 340 10 – 20dH, Hydrofast AFH 345 8 – 15dH, Hydrofast AFH 346 8 – 15dH, Hydrofast AFH 351 10 – 15dH, Hydrofast 341, Hydrofast AFS 354, Hydrofast AFH 358, Hydrofast GS 307, Hydrofast GH 303, Hydrofast AFS 359 Novasens, Hydrofast AFS VD6577 <10dH, Premier LA 0-7dH, Premier LA 250, VARN LIBRA FOUNT, G.S.B. Chemical Pty, Alpha Green Fountain Solution, F299 Multi Fount G, Hanns Eggen, Oxilan L, Oxilan H, Alcolan CtP, Alcolan CtP V 45.4, Alcolan CtP V 45.37, Alcolan V 79.33, Alcolan V 46.4, Alcolan CtP V 45.39, Hausleiter Druckhilfsmittel, Hacodamp 504, Hacodamp 533, Hacodamp 549, Hacodamp 901, Heidelberger Druckmaschinen, Saphira Fount 201, 202, 203, 211, 211-4, Saphira Fount 221, 232, 233, 1502A, Saphira Fount VLF, Huber GmbH, Hydrolith BS, Hydrolith BS-LA, Hydrolith BS-NX, hubergroup, Combifix 8022, Combifix 8055 .09,.19,.29, Combifix XL 8054, Combifix XL 8098, Combifix XL 8115, Hydrofix B 8013 .09,.19,.29,.39,.49, Direct Fluid 8300 .09,.19,.29, Combidry 8200, Combifix-MGA 8060, Hydrofix-SF 8265, NewVfix 830309, NewVfix 830319, Substifix AF 8317, Substifix 8333309, Substifix HD 8301, Substifix- MGA 8360, Substifix AF 8318 29, 09, 19, Hurst Australia Pty Ltd., Multi Fount, F299 Multi Fount G, Hydro-Dynamic Products, Alcoplus F, Alcoplus HMK, Totalrespect HMK Newsfount, Totalrespect Appro, Ultima Fount, IPC Chemical Corporation, PR-8103, KBA, IPA free fount 1.0, Universal Fountain Solution 1.0, Kapoor Imaging Pvt., S 1002 ARP, Litoprint Suprimento Graficos LTDA, Aquafount 2010, Marott Graphic Services, Systematic T2, Matkim Printing Chemicals, Gold S-500 Fountain Solution Concentrate, M.G.F., SMF 13, SM 16, Micha Lavi Ltd., pH Fount 4.6 SF, Muneeba Chemical, Munee Fount, PCO Europe B.V., Dynacol 381-Ci, Dynacol AC 388, Dynafount 426-Ci -S -H, Dynafount 462-Cl -S; -H, DynaFount 426 CI-S -S; -H, Spectrum Derwent fount 2018, Spectrum 2017 -S; -H, Win Fount SFAC -S; - H, Win Fount SFAC 2 - S; -H, Win Fount SFAF 3-C, Planatol Adhesive GmbH, Planatolith SF-IF-SM, Planatolith SF-SM, Planatolith SF-IF, Planatolith SF-H, manroland printcom, manroland sheetfed, Nordic Swan, fount S 101Q, fount S 102Q, fount S 103Q, fount S 201Q, 202Q, 203Q, 206B, 207Q, 208X, 209X, fount S 210E-long run, S 211X, manroland web systems printcom, fount C 701Q, fount C 702D, fount C 703D, fount C 704D, fount C 705X, fount C 706X, fount C 707X, fount C 708B, fount C 709X, fount C 710X, fount C 714B, fount C 715X, fount H 401Q, fount H 402D, fount H 501Q, fount H 502Q, fount H 503Q, fount H 505D, fount H 506D, fount H 507D, fount H 509X, fount H 510X, fount H 511X, fount H 512B, fount H 513X, fount H 514Q, fount H 516X, fount H 518B, fount H 519X, fount H 520E-long run, fount H 521E-long run, fount S 101Q, fount S 102Q, fount S 103X, fount S 201Q,fount S 202Q, fount S 203Q, fount S 206B, fount S 207Q, fount S 208X, fount S 209X, fount S 210E-long run, fount S 211X, Prisco, Questar CTP 122 EU, Questar CTP 185 EU, PressMax (FUJIFILM), FountMax Blue 30.25 AF, FountMax Blue 30.20 AF Pro-T, FountMax Blue 30.50 Pro-T, FountMax Blue 30.30 AF, FountMax Blue 30.40, FountMax Blue 30.41 Xtra Dry, FountMax Blue 30.31 AF, FountMax Blue 30.11, FountMax Blue 30.36 AF, FountMax Blue 30.33 AF, Samor Italia S.r.l., Fount LT 130, Saverio Rief, Sinal, IPA Stop, Perfect Fount, Schmidiger Systemtechnik, Alco-/Combiflex, Bernd Schwegmann, Schwego Soft 8125C <12dH, Schwego Soft 8125 C ED5613 ED5614, Schwego Soft 8126C >12dH, Schwego Soft 8127C, Schwego Soft 100 (200, 300), Schwego Soft 8154W 4 – 10dH, Schwego Soft 8154N 8 – 14dH, Schwego Soft 8154B 12-18dH, Schwego Soft 8157 <10dH, Schwego Soft 8157N 10-18dH, Schwego Soft 8157H, Schwego Soft 100 ED5613, Schwego Soft 200 ED5614, Helmut Siegel, Siegel Fix, SHV Technology Co., DEVI Fount -S, Soha Chemicals, Continental FS 32 Xi, Solco (FUJIFILM), Dampstar 4.6, Dampstar 5.17, Dampstar 5.17 Soft, Dampstar 5.45, Dampstar 5.5, Dampstar 5.6 Ecodry, Dampstar 5.46, Dampstar 5.48, Wolfgang Spielberger, alco down® Bogenoffset B40 -S, alco down® Bogenoffset B41 -S, Sun Chemical, Aquastabil KH 3949, SunFount® 300, SunFount® 455, SunFount® 485, SunFount 456 VE, SunFount 456, Technova Imaging Systems, Nectar HMK, Totalcare HMK, Tecnorulli s.r.l. ATR-IPA Zero, Ultrachem, Primafount SF1, Primafount AF1, Solafount AF 10, Spectrum 2250, Spectrum 2260, VEGRA, Blau 3301 Zi, Blau E-862 / 874 Zi, Principium, Alco Damp Grün M 60 Zi,Alco Damp Blau 3838zi, Alco Damp Blau 3870 / 878 Zi, WebGrafics GmbH, WEBline Sheet, TOYO INK Vietnam, Aquamagic, ALCOZERO, MEGAFOUNT 2000, MULTIFOUNT-M,
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Tác quyền trong phần ‘Về Pháp lý’ – tất cả thuộc về Công ty Vina Tâm, ‘vinatam’ 2009 – 2020©
vn_S49_2 AlcFree v7.410p
> WITH MODERN FORMULATIONS, STABILAT H8000 as single solution / 2019 v7h Abstract: Since years Fountain Solution Manufactures try to develop a easy workable substitution for IPA-Alcohol, or even better a Fountain Solution Concentrate that eliminates the need for IPA-Alcohol. This was successful for the US & European-Market with mainly newer Machines. Tests in Viet Nam have shown: these European or USA Products does not work proper on the installed Machines here in Viet Nam. DSC has undertaken Research for the South-East-Asia Market. The result is a fully new formulated FountainSolution: STABILAT H8000 / S7000 No additional Additives needed. No IPA-Alcohol needed. A Single Fountain Solution that fit for the Market. CONTENTS: Intro: WHY alcohol free printing? Precautions What to Expect Viscosity Emulsification Ink Feed Plate too Dry? Foam / Foaming Roller Settings / Tips Dampening Systems / Tips Three-Roller Integrated System Three-Roller Segregated System Four-Roller System Reverse Slip-Nip System The Alcolor System Summary INTRO: WHY Alcohol free Printing??? Why is Alcohol free Printing such an advantage? Because, it delivers so many benefits: Save Ink, and Cost, faster Drying, brighter Colours, reduced dot-gain, sharper half-tone dots, Healthier for the Worker, Enironment friendly, less odor, Reduced toxicity and flammability. Today, 2018, Alcohol replacement products are used worldwide in pressrooms. You may have tried already some substitutes. They may often not perform to your satisfaction because they are not made special for the South-East-Asian Climate & Environment. We offer a full range of Fountain Solution Products for all needs of the Vietnamese Market: ACEDIN D (AC72-111) for IPA-Alcohol 10-15% STABILAT D2010 (PR2105) for IPA-Alcohol 03-08% STABILAT H8000 (PR2205) for IPA-Alcohol 00-02% (depending on Roller Hardness) Beside this we have about 20 Special Fountain Solutions for different Machine or Ink or Paper or Water Types. The ACEDIN-D® and Stabilat® fountain solution products are easy to use and to handle. For best printing results use quality Press-room Chemicals from DSC & VinaTâm. STABILAT H8000 is approved by FOGRA and Press Manufactures. PRECAUTIONS ROLLER HARDNESS °shore One core Point to look at is the ROLLER Hardness. For best results the shore hardness is 22° to 26° max. If the Rollers are harder, then IPA may be needed. pH Water Value For best results you should use de-mineralized Water from a ‘Reverse-Osmosis (RO)’ Water-Treatment Device. For adjusting to the best Water Hardness °dH, we have special Products like CONSIDAL Water Hardener (SC4049). The use of CONDISAL in offset printing results in standardisation of the water to a total hardness of 8° - 10°dH where good printing is obtained. Incredibly CONDISDAL also acts to preserve process water from micro-organism contamination. Fountain-Tank & Pipe-System Cleaning with Clean-Set (SC4040) Unfortunately Bacteria, Algae, and other micro-organism like the Paper dust and ink slur that is sitting in the Tank and the Pipes. This results in faster increasing of the Conductivity as sign of dirt in the Fountain-Solution. For preventing this, a regular Pipe & Tank cleaning with CLEAN-SET is needed. CERTIFICATES Products from Heidelberg/FUJIFILM-DS / DSChemport: (also known as DS Druckerei-Service / DSC DS Chemport (FUJIFILM) from the ACEDIN and STABILAT Series are approved by FOGRA, Heidelberger, manrOland, KBA, Komori, ... Stabilat D2010, Stabilat H8000, Stabilat S7000, Acedin D 1989, Dampstar 5.5, Acedin Plano 4104 EcoDry, Acedin Plano 4105, Acedin Plano 4107, Acedin Plano 4107 L, Acedin Plano 4115, Acedin Plano 4112, Eliminating alcohol-based materials and replacing them with more compatible materials can be difficult. Our Tech-Team can help. When ink, plates, paper, etc. were evaluated in the past, it was assumed that they were evaluated solely on their merits – they either worked or they didn’t within the existing alcohol-based printing system. Many materials in pressrooms would never have been purchased if alcohol had not been in use. It is our intention that we will assist you in using alcohol substitutes and help you to make the change from alcohol to alcohol-free solutions. If you have any questions or comment, please feel free to call or contact us. Just click the envelope and fill the easy form. Or Just call 0902 66 92 62. WHAT TO EXPECT When using alcohol substitutes, there are some differences in key properties compared to running alcohol Fountain. EXPECT: Viscosity is less (lower) An important difference between using alcohol and Alkolex® AR or Stabilat® single-package fountain solution products is the viscosity of the solutions. A solution of 10% alcohol in water is almost twice as viscous as the water itself and about 30% more viscous than fountain solutions containing alcohol substitutes. This affects the rate at which the dampening system can deliver the fountain solution. The higher the viscosity, the faster the dampening system will deliver fountain solution to the plate. The lower the viscosity, the slower the delivery rate. In other words, with alcohol substitute products, the dampening system will deliver up to 30% less fountain solution to the plate than it would with alcohol. With a few exceptions, most dampening systems only need to be run about five to ten percent faster – a dial change from 4 to 5 – to provide adequate volumes of fountain solution to dampen the plate completely. If it is necessary to increase the dampener speed by more than 50%, also try reducing the roller pressures in the dampening system. If dial speeds cannot be lowered into an acceptable range, try increasing the diameter of the metering roller a few thousandths of an inch. This increases the surface speed of the metering roller in relation to the roller against which it rides. EXPECT: Emulsification is less (lower) Alcohol is such a strong ink emulsifier that press operators try to run plates as dry as possible, since experience has shown what will happen if they do not [emulsification]. At the same time, the press operator running alcohol substitutes is confronted with a higher dial speed and will instinctively turn the water dials up just enough to clean the background. This interferes with starts and restarts due to an inadequate supply of water and prevents adequate protection of the plate. Alcohol substitute products are non-emulsifiers so it is not necessary to run plates as dry as possible. In fact, we recommend that plates be at least as wet as when running alcohol. This will result in better ink/water balance, instead of constantly being in danger of running too dry. The best way to determine whether a plate is getting the fountain solution it needs is to look at it while the press is running. If a plate is run too dry, it will transfer ink across the background to the blanket more rapidly. This will lead to piling or “picture framing” on the blanket. Different level of Water on the Offset Printing Plate: Over the Image: Too Wet Over the Non-Image Area: Just Right Non-Image not safe covered: Too Dry EXPECT: Ink Feed is more efficient, so reduce the Ink feed Another important difference between alcohol and alcohol-free products relates to emulsification and ink feed. The idea of alcohol as a “wetting agent” is widely accepted, but is an oversimplification of what alcohol does. When using alcohol, the fountain solution wets not only the plate background, but also the image area of the plate and the ink. This reduces the efficiency of transfer of ink to the plate. When running without alcohol, only the background of the plate is aggressively dampened. The image area of the plate and the ink remain fairly dry. This allows a much more efficient transfer of ink from the rollers to the plate, thus reducing the amount of ink needed on the rollers to get the same ink density on the paper. The press has specific controls for the replacement rate of ink [look at the ink ratchet and keys], but there is no control for how much ink is on the rollers. The printer determines this arbitrarily when the press is inked up. If the ink system is overcharged with ink, ink/water balance can still be achieved. However, this balance will not be as stable as one based on an ink volume more in line with demand. Trying to maintain a large volume of ink will create a situation where the amount of ink on the rollers increases during the press run, thereby increasing the demand for water. If the press starts to demand more water as the press run progresses, gradually cut back on the ink feed rate and the demand for water will rapidly diminish. For the first week or so when running without alcohol, we recommend starting the run with low densities, bringing the job up to colour as the make-ready progresses. This way, you will quickly become accustomed to the new ink requirements. EXPECT: Plate Too Dry? Printers often instinctively run the plates as dry as possible. Long before the plate becomes dry enough to cause any other problems, it would scum from lack of moisture. It is possible to run the plate too dry when using Stabilat® single- package fountain solutions or Alkolex® AR products; in fact, this is the most common source of trouble. (Water- balance) It is recommended that you take a frequent look at the plates during the first few press runs to be sure that the plate doesn’t look dry, but has a light sheen of moisture on the surface. If run too dry, you may see ink on the blanket outside the sheet or web area, blanket pile occurring more rapidly, feedback into the dampening system, contamination of the circulator, poor ink/water balance or slow restarts. If the plate isn’t scumming, how can it be too dry? The answer is that Stabilat® single package fountain solutions and Alkolex® AR products are so effective at desensitising they will tend to keep the background clean with a very thin film of water. Remember that with alcohol, the solution is more viscous and the film delivered to the plate is thicker. The plate needs to be protected physically by a layer of water thick enough to keep ink out of the grain of the plate. EXPECT: Foam / Foaming Problems may occur Since alcohol is a good bulk defoamer when used in large quantities [5% or more], many press operators experience foaming problems when it is eliminated. Foam is created from the mixture of air and water by the circulating pump when the fountain solution is returned from the tray to the tank, not by the pressure used to do this. The pump will mix the air and water together very effectively, regardless of the pressure used. If foaming is a big problem, you may be able to disconnect the return lines from the pumps and rely on gravity to return the fountain solution to the tanks. This will limit the formation of foam. Stabilat® single-package fountain solutions and Alkolex® AR products have excellent de-foaming capabilities, but have little reserve de-foaming power to overcome additional foam formation from other sources. Many commonly used press washes and plate cleaners contain strong foaming ingredients. If these materials are introduced into the fountain solution and the circulator aerates the solution too much, foaming will occur. To eliminate foaming, once it occurs, you need to identify which products are causing the foaming and either change to a non-foaming alternative or take precautions to prevent any of these materials from entering the dampening system. A good way to identify a foam source is to place some of the suspect material in a tall container with water and shake well. If a big head of foam forms and does not dissipate quickly, then this material should be prevented from mixing with the fountain solution. Không có độ phân giải cao hơn. Source: Windpipe ROLLER SETTINGS / TIPS As alcohol assists in the wetting of the ink, the ink form rollers behave somewhat like extra dampening rollers, helping to wet the plate. However, this interferes with the ink rollers doing their job of inking the plate. When Stabilat® single- package fountain solutions or Alkolex® AR products are used, the ink in the ink system will remain dry. This means you will dampen with the dampening system and ink with the ink system. Many press operators have remarked: “When I add alcohol, this mark or that streak or this toning goes away!” However, if they were to lift the ink rollers and briefly print with only the dampening system, the problem would re-appear. Many systems have an adjustment that allows more water to be fed at the ends of the system than at the middle. This is referred to as the “skew control” It works by swinging one of the rollers [usually the metering roller] out of square with the chrome roller. This relieves the pressure at the ends, allowing more water through. When the skew control is set at zero, there is actually less water carried at the ends than in the middle. When Stabilat® single-package fountain solutions or Alkolex® AR products are run, the solution’s lower viscosity usually requires more skew than with alcohol. DAMPENING SYSTEMS / ADJUSTING TIPS Most continuous dampening systems fall into one of three categories: 1) three-roller integrated system, 2) three-roller segregated system, and 3) four-roller system. Each has advantages and disadvantages. One thing they all have in common is that without alcohol, it is best to run with minimum metering pressure to ensure an adequate transfer of fountain solution through the metering nip. Three-Roller Integrated System This system runs very well without alcohol, as long as the form roller is driven by the ink vibrator instead of the plate. Simply put, this means having the form roller tighter to the ink vibrator than it is to the plate. This will prevent streaking and toning at the lead edge of the plate by ensuring that the form roller speed is constant, rather than changing as the plate cylinder comes in and out of contact with the plate. Three-Roller Segregated System A three-roller segregated system often contains four rollers, but regardless of the fact that it can come with or without bridge rollers, they share the same characteristics. This system relies on gear drive for form roller speed, so the pressure settings of the form roller are not critical. It is important that the pressure between the form roller and the chrome roller is not so tight as to interfere with the transfer of water from the metering rollers to the form. The efficiency of this system is largely dependent on the gear ratio used by the manufacturer to drive the form roller. Four-Roller System These come in two layouts with one variation. In this system it is important that the form roller is tighter to the vibrator than it is to the plate. This is to ensure that the form roller speed remains constant. If the form is gear-driven by the vibrator, then the settings are less critical. This system has the reputation for “feeding back” or allowing ink to accumulate on the metering or slip roller. Stabilat® single-package fountain solutions and Alkolex® AR products will prevent the plates from running at an inadequate level of dampness. This will ensure that there is a sufficient flow of water through the dampening system to keep the flow of ink and water “one way”. Reverse Slip-Nip System This is a variation of the four-roller system. The advantage of the reverse nip at the slip contact is that a reservoir of liquid builds up that results in increased throughput. These systems may be the easiest to run without alcohol. The Alcolor System This four-roller system has a unique layout. It is important that the form roller be driven by the vibrator rather than the plate, but this poses a difficulty. As you tighten the pressure from the form to the vibrator, you start to exclude liquid from the Form-Roller. This system is more dependent on the solution’s viscosity to provide adequate throughput than other systems. Since alcohol free products have a viscosity of about 30% less than a 10% mixture of alcohol and water, the motor speed must be increased by about 30% to get the same amount of liquid through this system. This does not mean that more water is being used. With the Alcolor System, care must be taken to ensure that enough water is run. The natural tendency is to turn the dial up just enough to clean the background, but this will leave the plate too dry. Make sure the plate has a light sheen of moisture on it throughout the run. SUMMARY There is a lot information out here, that covers a wide range of topics related to running without alcohol. However, be clear with the two main points which are as follows: 2 MAIN TOPICs 1. When using alcohol, the main concern is to avoid running too much water and prevent emulsification. Without alcohol, the opposite situation exists – you must be sure to run enough water. 2. Also, you must be sure to carry less ink on the ink rollers. If the rollers are charged with the same volume of ink necessary to print with alcohol, it will lead to problems with ink/water balance, trapping, drying and the build-up of ink where it is not wanted. Remember - Alcohol free Printing can save up to about 20% of ink. Recommended DS/DSC Products: STABILAT H8000 : the new Single Solution for SEA & Vietnam STABILAT S7000 : the new Single Solution for SEA for Soft Water STABILAT D2010 : the classical solution ALCOLEX ACEDIN D 1989, ACEDIN-PLANO 4105 : solution for new machines How the Process Water should be: Process water recommendations / requirements Total Hardness (German Hardness °dH) 8 – 10 °dH | 1,42 – 1,78 mmol/l Chloride (Cl-) < 25 mg/l Sulfate (SO4 2-) <50 mg/l Nitrate (NO3-) < 50 mg/l Condictivity [µSiemens] 200 - 700 μS/cm pH-Value 6 - 8 Apperance Colorless, Clear Smell no smell Deposit / sediment < 0,2 ml/l Carbonate Hardness < 8° to 10 °dH Bacteria [Colony forming Units CFU] <100 CFU/mL (at T=20° to 23°C) Iron <0,05 mg/L Manganese <0,02 mg/L Aluminium <0,05 mg/L Copper <0,10 mg/L Zinc <0,20 mg/L Nickel <0,02 mg/L Acid capacity [pHS 4,3] <3,5 mmol/L Alkalinity [pH 8,2] <1,0 mmmol/L All rights reserved. No portion of this materials may be used or reproduced in whole or part without prior written consent. DS Chemport, Wikipedia, Vina Tâm; this materials are copyright protecteted 2018, Vina Tâm Co. Ltd. ©
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